Understanding the health equity and health outcome benefits of continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) is essential when considering Medicaid policy changes. The resources in this section can help states make the case that CGMs can improve health outcomes, reduce health disparities, and improve patient satisfaction.
Disparities in Hemoglobin A1c Levels in the First Year After Diagnosis Among Youths With Type 1 Diabetes Offered Continuous Glucose Monitoring
Describes the association between CGM utilization and changes in HbA1c levels by race/ethnicity and insurance status among a cohort of youths newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes.
Patient Demographics and Clinical Outcomes Among Type 1 Diabetes Patients Using Continuous Glucose Monitors: Data From T1D Exchange Real-World Observational Study
Provides evidence of patient attributes and clinical outcomes associated with CGM usage in practices across the U.S. for type 1 diabetes, as well as describes the positive benefits of CGM use but acknowledges the presence of significant sociodemographic disparities.
Continuous Glucose Monitors and Virtual Care in High-Risk, Racial and Ethnic Minority Populations: Toward Promoting Health Equity
Outlines the health equity implications of widespread CGM usage and virtual care models and includes CGM clinical practice and research recommendations for addressing racial and ethnic disparities.
Racial Disparities in Access and Use of Diabetes Technology Among Adult Patients With Type 1 Diabetes in a U.S. Academic Medical Center
Provides evidence for the presence of racial disparities, particularly for Black adults, in discussions, prescribing, and use of diabetes technology among adult patients with type 1 diabetes through a retrospective study.
Health Equity and Diabetes Technology: A Study of Access to Continuous Glucose Monitors by Payer, Geography and Race Executive Summary
Outlines the difference in access to CGM by payer, race, and geography. It provides insight into which populations are least likely to have access to CGM — communities of color, those with low income, individuals covered by Medicaid, and people who live in states with some of the highest rates of diabetes.
Implicit Racial–Ethnic and Insurance-Mediated Bias to Recommending Diabetes Technology: Insights from T1D Exchange Multicenter Pediatric and Adult Diabetes Provider Cohort
Examines the role of race/ethnicity and provider bias in recommending diabetes technology for type 1 diabetes in 75 pediatric and 34 adult providers in New York, Ohio, Tennessee, Georgia, and Alabama.
Addressing Healthcare Disparities and Managed Care Considerations With Continuous Glucose Monitoring
Outlines the role social determinants of health and health inequities play in the prevalence of diabetes and CGM usage, as well as provides recommendations to reduce these disparities through population health management and quality control measures.
Health Care Disparities in Use of Continuous Glucose Monitoring
Assesses the scope and impact of CGM disparities among racially and ethnically diverse populations and populations with lower income. It also examines how CGM use positively affects glycemic control and reduces diabetes-related hospitalizations and emergency room visits among people with diabetes on intensive insulin regimens.