The following resources provide examples of innovative models integrating physical and behavioral health care. Resources are categorized within three core topic areas: (1) physical/behavioral health integration; (2) appropriate emergency department use; and (3) innovations for integrating depression treatment into primary care.


Models of Physical/Behavioral Health Integration


Appropriate Emergency Department Use

  • Washington State Screening, Brief Intervention, Referral and Treatment This collaborative project was designed to reduce emergency department use by providing brief interventions, brief therapy, and, in some cases, chemical dependency treatment to emergency department patients who screen positive for substance use disorders.
  • Frequent Users of Health Services Initiative This six-year demonstration project, supported by The California Endowment and the California HealthCare Foundation, promoted new models of care for “frequent users” of hospital emergency departments, many of whom have chronic physical and mental illness. Visit the website for a variety of resources including an outcome evaluation and a hands-on implementation toolkit.

Depression Treatment in Primary Care

  • DIAMOND Model DIAMOND (Depression Improvement Across Minnesota, Offering a New Direction), developed by the Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement, is a comprehensive approach to improve primary health care delivery for people with depression.
  • IMPACT Model This model, developed by Jürgen Unützer, MD, MPH, at the University of Washington, offers an adaptable approach for treating depression. The web site includes information and materials to help organizations implement IMPACT in a variety of settings.
  • Three Component Model This team approach, developed by the MacArthur Foundation Initiative on Depression and Primary Care, focuses on the following three components for depression management: prepared primary care clinician and practice, care management, and collaborating mental health specialist.
  • PEARLS Program This model, developed by researchers at the University of Washington, is designed to reduce depressive symptoms and improve quality of life in older adults and in all-age adults with epilepsy. It involves six to eight in-home sessions that focus on behavioral change and consumer empowerment.